Better Than Chicken Tractors:
Hoophouse Chicken Coops for Pastured Poultry
by Robert Plamondon firstname.lastname@example.org
April 27, 2003
Last Updated: February 6, 2011
The Mark I hoop coop, designed and built by Karen Black. The house is pulled by hand downhill to a
new patch of grass, once or twice per day. The Mark II hoop coop (not shown)
has the open end facing the direction of travel so the operator can see
inside while moving the pen. This reduces the number of broilers that get
run over by the back wall. A 2x4 ridge pole to supports the top of the hoop,
which otherwise can collapse under snow loads or buckle under the weight of heavy hanging feeders.
My wife, Karen Black, invented these simple chicken houses in the Nineties,
when she decided she wanted a pen she could walk around in, rather than
the standard Salatin-style pens that are only two feet high. This is in keeping
with a old-time poultry maxim: "A chicken house should be small enough that you can
reach into any part of it from outside, or big enough to walk around in." The
middle ground creates a chicken house that is inaccessible, and that leads to
inadequate care and chicken poop on your hands and knees!
are made from with lightweight cattle panels bent into a semicircle, attached
to a wooden bottom frame, and covered with a tarp. The ends are framed
with wood, with a door or hatch in the front end.
Lightweight stock panels are made out of heavily galvanized wire and
are 16 feet long and about 4 1/2 feet high. They cost between $12 and $17
at local farm stores. We use two-panel houses to make a roughly 8'x9' house
with a ridge height of about six feet. This is good for between 50 and
75 broilers if you butcher them all at once. We butcher them over a period
of two weeks, always choosing the largest birds, and in this case the house
is good for up to 100 broilers, with care.
The panels are attached to the wooden frame with fence staples.
We use 2x4 lumber for the bottom frame and 1x4 lumber for the end framing.
Diagonal bracing on the bottom frame, visible in the photo, is important
to prevent the house from racking itself to pieces.
A partially framed Mark II hooophouse, with the bottom frame and
back wall framing in place, but no diagonal bracing or doorframe yet. Note
that the bottom frame consists of two skids (in contact with the ground)
and two sills (on top of the skids). This particular house suffers from
excessive amounts of sag in the sills, which should have been installed
The back end is covered with a tarp up almost to the top. A gap is left
at the top of the rear wall to allow roof ventilation. The front is kept
entirely open, covered only with chicken wire. This should be heavy-duty
1" chicken wire, preferably Red Brand. 2" turkey wire doesn't last. Neither
do cheap brands of netting. The easiest method of attaching the chicken
wire is to use plastic tie wraps.
It's best to use chicken wire on all four sides, going at least
2' high on the sides and 4' on the front and rear. If you are going to
raise turkeys in these pens, then the wire should go all the way to
the top on the front and rear, and 4' up on the sides. Additional 1x4's
should be added front and rear as well, to provide crash barriers to prevent
the turkeys from working the netting loose by jumping against it.
The door can be arranged as a lift-out hatch rather than hinged.
It is our experience that doors can get ripped off their hinges by weather
and other accidents. If you do use doors, they should be arranged so that if the
front wall of the house warps &emdash; which it will, since it's not very rigid &emdash; the door won't stick.
The tarps can be attached to the wood framing with a staple gun and
to the panels with plastic tie wraps.
The house needs to be mounted on skids. That is, only two walls should
be in contact with the ground. The others should be at least 1 1/2" off
the ground. 3 1/2" is better. If the front and rear walls drag on the ground,
the house is very difficult to move and quickly becomes damaged. Also,
broilers who are caught by the back wall tend to be crushed if the wall is dragging
on the ground, but pop through unharmed to the outside if it is elevated a few inches.
Flaps on the two elevated walls, made from old feed sacks, lengths of tarp,
or rubber floor-mat material, will close off the gap and help keep predators
out and broilers in.
The top of the roof needs to be 100% waterproof. Away from the top,
as the slope of the sides increases, the water has less tendency to drip
though even if there is a hole. Thus a high-quality silver top covering
the top third of the roof, plus a cheap top covering the rest, will work
almost as well as the more expensive option of a silver tarp over everything.
The tarps will flutter and flap against the cattle panels and will wear themselves out in the course of a season or two.
Using two layers of tarp will help, and of course snugging them down well also helps.
We use these houses for broilers because they can be moved by hand every day to a fresh patch of grass, since otherwise the
floor becomes a solid layer of chicken poop. Broilers don't forage
much even if you leave the doors open, which we don't do, since when they're young, they're too dumb to come in out of the rain, and
they also tend to sleep outside, where the hawks and owls can get them. Some people arrange their schedules so they always, without fail,
are on hand to shoo the chickens inside and close the doors at dusk, but we decided to have a life instead!
we don't use these houses for hens. Our hen-houses are heavier and we move them with a tractor a few times a year. The difference is
due to several factors:
- Hens hardly eat anything compared to broilers, so their manure production isn't so overwhelming. The floor in a well-ventilated henhouse can
stay dry even without litter.
- Hens spend their time in the houses on roosts, so they stay clean even over a wet floor (which, even in rainy Oregon winters, is not
a problem for us).
- Hens know to come in out of the rain and (mostly) to sleep indoors, so it's okay to let them come and go as they please. Since they're
unconfined, they can find grass and other forage under their own power. It doesn't have to be right there in the house.
Click here for a detailed description of
a Mark II hoop coop (PDF format).
Chicken Coop Plans
Open Chicken Coops Work Best, Even in Winter!
Don't be fooled by people who say that chickens need to be shut up tight all winter: an outdoor lifestyle is what
the chickens need, year-round. And if they can't go outside, they still need a light, airy, well-ventilated chicken coop.
The chicken coop plans on the market want you to build dank and stuffy chicken dungeons, which is exactly what they don't
need. Instead, you should read Fresh-Air Poultry Houses,
the bible of open-air chicken coops for all climates. This book is an oldie but a goodie, going into every detail and answering
Everyone who has raised free-range or pasture poultry know how much they thrive with an outdoor lifestyle.
Fresh-Air Poultry Houses shows you how the right
housing can cling to these benefits even when the chickens have to stay indoors. Highly recommended.
More Chicken-House Info.
Back to the Free-Range Poultry Page.